Friday, July 10, 2015

The Consequences of the Self destructive nature of modern civilization-KUDANKULAM AND THE WORLD'S DAMS

© Copyright 2016 Ramaswami Ashok Kumar

The Kudankulam shutdown on January 14 2015, the Nepal 7.8 MM Earthquake of 25th april 2015 and the announcement of the 60 day annual maintenance and fuel replacement at Kudankulam:

Alarm on 14 January 2015 shuts down power unit of India’s Kudankulam NPP

15/01/2015 TASS
The first power unit of India’s Kudankulam NPP, in the southern Tamil Nadu state, was shut down on Thursday[Jan 15] after an emergency signal was activated, a source in India’s Nuclear Power Corporation (NPCIL) has said.
The signal came reportedly due to a failed switch to transmission lines, the source said, adding that “works are underway to clarify the causes and fix the malfunction, and the power unit will start operation only after its safe use is guaranteed.”

Last week due to an external cause - the switching of the power supply mode — the transformer on the NPP 's first unit disconnected and the automatic protection system was activated. At the time of the shutdown all the equipment was in working order and operating normally. On Sunday, the first unit's reactor was restarted.

Tremors felt in Chennai(24 April 2015,7.8 MM quake in Nepal)

Tremors were felt in some parts of Chennai city and the neighbouring union territory of Puducherry. In Chennai, tremors were felt in Kodambakkam and Guindy areas. “I felt slight tremors around noon,” S.Bhuvaneswari, a private sector employee in Guindly locality, told IANS. According to reports, some residents in Puducherry also felt the tremors.
These all forebode a grim future for modern civilization.
By application of the precautionary principle it is shown again and again that modern civilization is generically unscientific and is in the process of destroying itself and life.
The events at Koodankulam provide an excellent example of this ongoing suicide of modern civilization.
See Table GAUATWDS for the picture of some catastrophic events in the world:

The Picture of Displacements, Rates of Vertical Change in Level and Vertical accelerations at Kudankulam.
The Kudankulam Table of estimate of Data and Figures pertaining to the Hydrological Year 2014-2015 reveal a dangerous sequence of events
made credible by shutdown of the plant  after an alarm sounded on 14 January 2015 and the Himalayan 7.8 MM major earthquake at Lamjung, Nepal.
The sum of the changes in the world dam contents from the begin of the monsoon on 1 June 2014 to the end of monsoon on1 October 2014 to bring about the release of energy through the earthquakes that occurred during this period, 44.8 BCM,  is so huge as to lift Kudankulam by 256 m compared to its level on 1 June 2014(Figure2Ch2).
And the equally frightening drops in the dry season October to May compared to its level on 1 October 2014(Figure2Ch2).

I feel the authorities may have applied the precautionary principle and hence arrived at the decision to have a two month maintenance shutdown of the plant for refuelling and thoroughly investigate any damage to the fuel assemblies.
The level of Kudankulam changed during the events as shown by the estimates in Figure3Ch3(Alarm sounded on 14 January 2015, not on 15 Jan): 

The vertical accelerations in level of Kudankulam give particular insight into the dam surge effects on infrastructures of modern civilization:

The Table  NEPALLUMJUNGKUDANKULAM clearly presents how the estimates were arrived at:

Above web fire mapper map depicts the hotspots generated at Kudankulam by the world’s dam surges prior to the alarm and unit trip out on January 14,  2015 at 13:50 UTC.

 The above fire map shows that the Kudankulam hotspots have vanished on January 15.

The fire map above shows the hotspots near Kudankulam on 24 April 2015 before the Lamjung earthquake
on 25 April 2015. The fire map below shows that the hotspots near Kudankulam have vanished on 25th April 2015, the day the 7.8 MM magnitude earthquake struck the Nepal Himalayas at Lamjung.

Hotspots prior to the 9May 2015 disturbance and tripping of Kudankulam reactor at 13:48 UTC

No hotspots were observed on 7 and 8 May 2015 at Kudankulam

No hotspots on 9 May 2015 at Kudankulam, 8.17,77.7125:

Similar scientific investigation(See Reference 1) to the above analysis using worldwide earthquake data, by application of the precautionary principle, reveals the highly probable persistence of catastrophic effects of world dam surges of hundreds of thousands of terawatts to billions of terawatts at Kudankulam confirming the alarm and unit trip on 14 January 2015 and 9 May 2015(Table DSKL and Table DSKL1):

According to Power System Operation Corporation Ltd. (PSOCO), the Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant's first unit stopped at 6.38 pm on May 9(2015) owing to "reactor trip due to transient in-steam generator level control." Power System Operation Corporation Ltd. (PSOCO)


See introduction in Reference 2 for the significance of the water level controller in a steam generator for PWR nuclear reactors:

Extract from the Introduction:
Water level control of SG is an important problem that must be considered for plant safety and availability. Poor control of the SG water level can lead to frequent reactor shutdowns. About 25% of emergency shutdowns in the nuclear power plants based on pressurized water reactor (PWR) are caused by poor control of the SG water level at low powers [K]. Such shutdowns can decrease the plant availability greatly and must be minimized. For the steam
generator (SG) in a nuclear power plant [1], the main goal of its control system is to maintain the SG water level at a desired value by regulating the feed-water flow rate. Conventional feed-water control schemes cannot provide satisfactory performance within the required wide operating range of 0 to 100% of the specified load. A large proportion of reactor shutdowns at operating nuclear plants, which causes a severe economic loss, have been mainly caused by ineffective feed-water control. Therefore, development of better control schemes is very important. A review of past PWR plant operation experiences indicates that unplanned reactor trips due to SG level control have been significant contributors to plant unavailability. During low power operation, the level control is complicated by the thermal reverse effects known as “shrink and swell”. [2]. Thermodynamics of UTSG makes it very difficult to model the water level theoretically. Even though it were accomplished, the theoretical models [3],[4],[5], [6] are too complicated to be considered as candidates for control system design. Therefore, Irving [7] developed a simplified linear dynamic model, which has been extensively followed by many successive researchers later on [8], [9] and [10]. Many attempts have been made to design controllers for the UTSG water level over the last two decades. Na [11] reported a PID  control of UTSG water level, where he used a model predictive technique (based on standard Irving’s model) to automatically tune the PID gains. Later on, he developed an adaptive predictive controller for UTSG [12]. Kothera [13] presented model predictive control of the UTSG water level using a further simplified UTSG model. In these paper, two parallel fuzzy controllers was designed to maintain the water level of SG at desired level, the first fuzzy controller for level error, and the second fuzzy controller for the flow error. The proposed controller was compared with conventional water level controller of SG.

See also Reference 3:

The water level of the steam generator mu st not be allowed to rise too high in  order to prevent the excessive moisture carryover and the pressure buildup of the  containment in the break of secondary side flow loop. Also, the lo w water level should be  prevented in order to avoid the uncovery of the U-tubes in the secondary side. Therefore, the control of the steam generator water level is important to determine power plant responses in the event of changes in the operating load. The proposed controller is  designed to ensure a satisfactory automatic control for the SG water level from low power to full power .

During low power  operation, the level control is complicated  by the thermal reverse effects known as  “shrink and swell”. Due to the destabilizing vapor content in the tube bundle region, the  water level measured in the downcomer tempor arily reacts in a reverse manner to water  inventory change. Increased feed-water fl ow adds mass to the SG, which would be  expected to increase the measured downcom er water level, and does not increase it at  high power. But at low power, the cold feed-w ater addition can cause a decrease in the  vapor content of tube bundle, a shift in the liquid from the downcomer to tube bundle, and a temporary decrease in level (shrink). Si milarly, a decrease in feed-water flow can  cause a temporary increase in wa ter level (swell). These reve rse effects are confusing for  either manual or automatic operation. The only true indication of wa ter inventory change  is the flow mismatch between steam and feed-water.
But there will be hardly any time to wait for controls:
See the power of the World's dams as they unleash their surges:
A 200000 Terawatt surge lasting 23.4 ms tore into the Varunavat Parvat on 18 July 2015 just before midnight(UTC) creating a 25 meter long 10 cm wide crack threatening Uttarkashi, at its foot with an unprecedented dam related event like a landslide(Table DPUVP):

References and notes
1. R. Ashok Kumar.2015.The science of dams causing earthquakes and climate change. 
2. Hamdi M Mousa et al.2010. Improvement of Water Level Controller for  Nuclear Steam Generator at Low Power Operation.
3.Report No.: ORNL/TM-2001/166. A.M.Hasanul Basher et al. 2001. Development of a Robust Model-Based Water Level Controller for U-Tube Steam Generator.Prepared by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831.Managed by UT-Battelle, LLC For U.S. Department of Energy
Under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725.

4. In order to be acquainted what is to come at coastal areas 
like Fukushima, for example at Kudankulam and Kalpakkam, 
you may like to view from enenews this:
Full documentary Fukushima Daiichi's Hidden Crises Radioactive Water NHK Documentary 02
Published on Jul 11, 2015
Myles Prado
1hr 30min video



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