Monday, October 06, 2014


© 2015 Ramaswami Ashok Kumar

"The hunt now began in earnest to find the sources contributing to the 2 TW of energy."

"Scientists surmised that there were areas of weak mixing where the sampling was done and the areas of intense mixing were missed. This led to competition among oceanographers to find the missing mixing.
In 1998 the amount of missing mixing was quantified on a global scale by Munk and Carl Wunsch. It was estimated that potential energy had to be supplied at a rate of roughly 0.4 tera watts (1 terawatt is 10 raised to the power of 12 watts) to continuously lift dense bottom waters to the ocean surface. During an internal-wave-breaking event, about 20 per ent of the wave energy is converted into potential energy and lifts fluid, with the rest being dissipated by inconsequential small-scale motions. Internal waves would thus have to be generated at a rate of approximately 2 TW to mix bottom waters back to the surface."

Dams are supplying the 2 TW and probably more!
Calculations on the instantaneous change in dam contents show that in the past hydrological year(2013-14) it amounted to 200 billion cubic meters a second. This change occurred at the centre of gravity of the world's dams creating an instantaneous water moment change equivalent to a moment magnitude of 8.79 MM. This means every instant a power input into the earth by the dams is taking place to the tune of a million terawatts! See Reference 1 for the empirical formula. Since the surge waves created by the dams emanating from the centre of gravity(25,101.5)(during 2013-14 hydrological year) pass through both the body and the surface of the earth, the mixing power is easily supplied by the enormous surges of the dams which meet the water needs of modern civilization continuously.
The implications of this for radiation mixing are profound:
See The Unacceptable Dangers of Nuclear Energy at:
Especially in the context of Fukushima and nuclear dumping in the high seas:
1. Turcotte et al. 2002. Geodynamics.p 354. Cambridge University Press.
2. R. Ashok Kumar .2005. Earthquakes Caused by Dams at Worldwide Earthquakes are caused by the World's Dams: Link at
3. The earth has 117 million lakes:study at


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